History of computerized physician order entry

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This is a timeline of the early history of computerized physician order entry, from 1971 through 2009.

  • In 1971, Lockheed Martin developed the first CPOE system in the El Camino hospital in Mountain View, California. The system was rudimentary, with almost no clinical decision support, but it did allow physicians to quickly order medications with a few simple clicks.
  • In 1984, the Regenstrief Institute implemented a CPOE at Wishard Memorial Hospital. This system required keyboard input, but had more decision support than the El Camino system. It allowed automatic reordering and alerts for known adverse interactions.
  • In 1988, the LDS Hospital in Salt Lake came out with Health Evaluation through Logical Programming (HELP), a blood-product-specific CPOE system that added an additional "standing orders" feature, which automatically placed orders for specific procedures that were added over time. [1]
  • From 1994 to 2004, commercial CPOE grew quickly. Cerner came out with Millenium, Eclipsys changed their E7000 line into SCM, Siemens launched InVision, Meditech announced Magic, Epic Systems released Epic, McKesson developed Horizon, and GE was just finishing Centricity. [2]
  • However, as of 2009, less than 10% of the hospitals in the US had fully operational CPOE systems. [3]